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Monday, December 14, 2015

HEALTH | What are the blood types? Why is it important to know about your blood type?

Accidents happen all the time. And for what it's worth, it is definitely essential to get to know about your and your loved ones' blood types. Pero, what are the blood types? And why is it important to know about your blood type?

Image Courtesy: Interactive-Biology.com

In general, there are four (4) blood type: A, B, AB, and O. There are two components to consider when talking about blood transfusion. First is antigen, and second is antibody.

Kung iisipin natin, parang ang A antigens are the keys (susi), and anti-B antibodies are the doorknobs with matching "machine gun" to kill any foreign object. Kapag ikaw ay may type A blood, nakabantay ang anti-B antibodies mo against B antigens (na matatagpuan malamang sa type B blood at pati na din sa type O blood). Ibig sabihin hindi ka pwedeng tumanggap ng type B blood kasi it contains B antigens na sisirain lang ng anti-B antibodies ng dugo mo.

What will happen if the anti-B antibodies attack the B antigens in the blood that you received? The B antigens (bilang ikaw ay type A na pasyente na tumatanggap ng type B blood) will be attacked (via "machine gun" bratatatat hehe as mentioned above) and destroyed by your B-antibodies, may clog your blood vessels, and eventually cause blood clot (o barado sa ugat). Yung condition dito ay acute hemolytic transfusion reaction.

Okay, so here are some of the basic rules:

1. A person with A antigens in their blood is said to have type A blood. Type A patients have anti-B antibodies. So, they can only receive type A and type O blood (check number 4 below).

2. A person with B antigens in their blood is said to have type A blood. Type B patients have anti-A antibodies. So, they can only receive type B and type O blood (check number 4 below).

3. A person with A and B antigens (yup, both) in their blood is said to have type AB blood. Type AB patients have no antibodies kaya pwede silang tumanggap ng type A, type B, type AB, or type O blood. This is why they are called universal recipients.

4. A person with no antigens in their blood is said to have type O blood. Type O patients have A- and B-antibodies, kaya hindi sila pwedeng tumanggap ng blood other than type O. Pero if you will notice, from 1 to 4, people with type O blood can give to any of them. This is why people with type O blood are called universal donors. Sila yung dakilang pwedeng magbigay.

These are the four (4) basic types of blood. Pero, may specific pa na classification sa kanila. And the specificity of the blood type all depends on the Rh factor, another antigen found in blood cells na ipinangalan sa Rhesus monkeys. Yung pag-assign ng whether or not merong Rh factor sa dugo mo is either (+) or (-). And it is important kasi pwedeng atakihin ang dugo mo kung ibang Rh factor ang meron ka.

Donors with Rh (-) antigens can give to either patients with Rh (-) or patients with Rh (+) antigens, while those with Rh (+) antigens can ONLY give to patients with Rh (+) as well.

So, to apply what was learned (refer to the table above), we will compile everything up. Ang pinaka-universal donor talaga ay yung mga type O (-) patients. Compatible ang dugo ni O (-) sa lahat ng blood types. Si type AB (+) naman ang pinaka-konti ang pwedeng mabigyan; in short, kahit gaano man ka-deep yung intensyon niya na magbigay, hindi talaga pwede. Luckily, may tinatawag na blood swap/exchange sa blood banks hehe. Ang mga may AB (+) ay pwede lang talagang magbigay sa kapwa AB (+).

Ang pinaka-universal recipient naman ay si AB (+) kasi kaya niya tumanggap ng dugo mula kahit na sinong walang sakit. Now, if hindi mo pa din naintindihan, do watch the video below.

Image and Video Courtesy: Youtube channel Thoughty2

In case you still don't get why you need to know what your blood type is, the real reason why you should know about your blood type is so that you'd be aware of what blood type you need. Oo, may mga high-tech gadgets na ginagamit to detect your blood type at an instant. Pero sa mga probinsya at malalayong lugar, bihira ang ganyan, kaya importante din na alam mo kung ano talaga blood type mo. Kasi kung mali ang blood type mo, mali din ang dugo na maitratransfuse sa iyo. And you wouldn't want that case. Promise.

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