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LIST | Persons who can go out during mandatory COVID community quarantine

On Wednesday, the Inter-Agency Task Force for the Management of Emerging Infectious Diseases revealed a complete list of persons exempted f...

Saturday, February 29, 2020

REViEW | Business Strategy Android Game

There will always be at least one (1) person in your circle, if not you, who dreams of becoming a billionaire or be at the top tier of the socioeconomic classes. Well, that could probably be achieved in the near future, but while it's still an ongoing process to get there, there are some Android-powered games that allow anyone to simulate that path to financial success.



In "Business strategy," you can start working from the bottom, saving money, and then budgeting your salary to be able to get enough savings to invest in the stock market, in bitcoin or even in commodities like cotton, gold and oil. Once you've earned more than enough, you can then start your own business, but be aware that once you start your business, you'd have to quit your job.

What I like about this game is that even if it's not realistic, it enables you to see a shallow view of what it's like to reach for the top and be one of the billionaires. The goal of the game is to reach $1 billion in your account by 65 years old without dying from poor health or unhappiness. It's really as easy as that.



During the course of the game, you'd have to watch out for news that would tell you if something profitable is incoming or would warn you if you have to get out of a certain situation (perhaps sell some stocks or sell your business due to the changing landscape).



And if I were to rate this game, I would give it a solid 9 out of 10. It's lacking one point because the game is somehow predictable and ads keep on popping every now and then. It's somehow simple, but very educational.

Some tips while playing the Business strategy game:
  • Always look at your health and happiness meters. If it empties out, you'll lose. Adjust it accordingly by increasing your expenses on healthcare, food, housing, and leisure. 
  • Buy bitcoins. Sell at peak. Look at the market technical analysis tab.
  • Check out the News tab every turn. Something bad or good happens, which you can use to your advantage.


  • Commodity prices go up or down immediately one turn after news related to that commodity breaks.
  • The stock market is somehow my waterloo. I rarely invest in it.


  • Set up your business as soon as you reach $50 million. Use your money to improve the productivity and stability of your business. Sell once its worth is placing you near the billion-dollar mark.
  • Don't borrow from the bank as its rate is high. It might force you to bankcruptcy.
  • Finally, enjoy the game! It will teach you how to think broadly about money.

FOOD | Free Wings at Bad Bird Until March 3!


Image Courtesy: Bad Bird

Free Wings at Bad Bird February 2020

WHEN: Ongoing until March 3, 2020
WHERE: Bad Bird restaurants

Known not for being bad, but for being good at serving delicious chicken plates and grilled meats, Bad Bird is ready to bring you more bang for the buck!

Welcome your payday weekend with a plate of FREE yummy wings when you spend a minimum amount of Php 800!

Mechanics:
  1. To claim, just present their Facebook post to Bad Bird staff 
  2. One free plate of wings per transaction only
  3. Valid for dine-in only

FOOD | Jin Joo Piso Samgyupsal Promo This March 2020!

Image Courtesy: Jin Joo Samgyupsal

Jin Joo Piso Samgyupsal Promo This March 2020

WHEN: March 3 2020
WHERE: Jin Joo participating stores (SM Aura Premier, Eastwood Citywalk, The Podium, Glorietta 4, SM Bacoor, SM Mall of Asia)

Are you ready for SAMGYUPSAL DAY this March?

Here's a little surprise for everyone. Get a chance to enjoy our Php 1 SAMGYUPSAL on March 3, 2020, Samgyupsal Day!

Jin Joo Samgyupsal Piso Promo Terms and Conditions:
  • Enjoy Jin Joo Php1 Samgyupsal per order on March 3, 2020 Samgyupsal Day!
  • Strictly for WALK-INS only!
  • MUST order an ALA CARTE dish from the menu.
  • ONLY a maximum of Two (2) Php 1 Samgyupsal can be availed per table/group.
  • First-come, first-served basis.
  • Take note that P1 Samgyupsal is for Ala Carte only
  • Promo is available at all Jin Joo Korean Grill branches!
  • Promo is not in conjunction with any other promos and discounts.

PROMO | Dairy Queen Leap Year Treat This February 29!


Image Courtesy: Dairy Queen
Dairy Queen Leap Year Treat 

PROMO PERIOD: February 29 2020
WHERE: Dairy Queen Stores
A leap year only comes around every four years. Imagine turning one (1) year older every four years! Celebrate this day as the most special of all, whether it's your birthday or not, with Dairy Queen’s Leap Year Treat! 

Get Php 29 off  your Medium and Large Blizzards this February 29! Your blizzards will come in flavors of Oreo, Strawberry Banana, Chocolate Chip and Brownie Temptation. Enjoy!

Friday, February 28, 2020

PROMO | BUY 1 GET 1 Cara Mia Gelato Until March 1, 2020



Image Courtesy: Cara Mia

Buy 1 Get 1 (B1G1) Cara Mia Gelato This End of February 2020

PROMO PERIOD: February 27 to March 1, 2020
WHERE: Cara Mia Ayala Malls the 30th, Cara Mia Ayala Malls Cloverleaf

Your favorite gelato spot Cara Mia has recently opened two new branches.

To make these branch openings more exciting, Cara Mia has offered a Buy 1 Get 1 (B1G1) Gelato Sale in the following stores:
  • Ayala Malls The 30th branch - February 27 to 28 
  • Ayala Malls Cloverleaf branch - February 28 to March 1

Promo is valid for single cup transactions only. See you there! #AlwaysAJoyfulTreat

SHOPPING | Banana Republic BR Shopping Party This March 2020



Image Courtesy: Banana Republic


Banana Republic 
BR Shopping Party March 2020
WHEN: March 1 2020
WHERE: Banana Republic Greenbelt 5

You’re invited to the #BRShoppingParty of March! Enjoy these perks while you shop for NEW ARRIVALS items on March 1, Sunday, at Banana Republic Greenbelt 5:
  • 30% off entire store
  • 35% off entire store for Banana Republic VIPs
You're two days ahead of time. List down what you might want to buy and head to Greenbelt 5! See you there!

FOOD | Pizza Hut Big Payday Feast Promo February 2020

Image Courtesy: Pizza Hut

So everyone's gotten their salary fo their payday? You know what you gotta when restaurants scramble to offer you the best deals! Get it.

WHEN: February 28 to March 1, 2020
WHERE: all Pizza Hut branches nationwide

Pizza Hut brings you its Payday Feast! Order the Big Payday Feast and Get 1 Large Hawaiian Supreme Pan Pizza, 1 Large Bacon Cheeseburger Supreme Pan Pizza, 1 Family Spaghetti Bolognese, and 1.75L Pepsi all for Php 999.

Visit www.pizzahut.com.ph. Or call 8911-1111 for Metro Manila delivery and #11111 for provincial orders.

Promo Mechanics:

Order the Big Payday Feast for P999 and get:
  • 1 Large Hawaiian Supreme Pan Pizza,
  • 1 Large Bacon Cheeseburger Supreme Pan Pizza,
  • 1 Family Spaghetti Bolognese, and
  • 1.75L Pepsi
Exclusive for take-out and delivery only

Thursday, February 27, 2020

DRINKS | Tim Hortons 3rd Anniversary Promo This February 2020

Image Courtesy: Tim Hortons

Celebrate Tim Hortons 3rd Anniversary this February 2020 on the following dates:

WHEN: February 26-29, 2020
WHERE: Tim Hortons Branches

Tim Hortons is inviting you to join them in their 3rd anniversary promo. Get to enjoy your 3rd cup for free! 

Get one (1) free coffee for every purchase of two (2) beverages on February 26-29, 2020 from 2PM to 7PM

See you there!

SHOPPING | The SM Store 3-Day Sale This End of February 2020

Image Courtesy: The SM Store

Hello, thrifty shoppers! It’s time for a 3-Day SM Sale at select SM Stores in the country!

WHERE: SM Bacolod, SM BF-Parañaque, SM Pampanga, SM Taytay, and SM Valenzuela

WHEN: February 28 to March 1, 2020

Get ready to SHOP and SCORE MAJOR 
1. SAVING on this season's must-haves
2. up to 50% OFF on selected items
3. REBATES when you use your BDO card

EXTRA 10% discount for SMAC and Prestige cardholders

What can you took forward to daily:

PRESTIGE FRIDAY (February 28, 2020): 
Get extra 10% OFF on all* items, whole day, with your SM Prestige / BDO Rewards Diamond card.

SMAC SATURDAY (February 29, 2020): 
Enjoy extra 10% OFF on all* items, from store opening until 12nn, with your SM Advantage / SM Prestige, and BDO Rewards cards.

SMAC SUNDAY SPECIAL (March 1, 2020): 
Extra 10% OFF on all* items, 5pm to 7pm, with your SM Advantage / SM Prestige cards. Offer is extended to BDO Rewards cardholders.

*Standard discount exclusions apply

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

PROMO | Selecta Ice Cream 3-Day Sale in February 2020!

Image Courtesy: Selecta
Selecta Ice Cream 3-Day Sale February 2020

PROMO PERIOD: February 28- March 1, 2020

WHERE: participating stores nationwide

Ready for a sweet treat? Of course, you are! Summer is fast-approaching and there is no other simpler way to beat the heat than to lick your favorite go-to ice cream!

Selecta's wide variety of ice cream flavors will be on sale from February 28 to March 1, 2020! Save up to 40% on selected products. Don't forget to check out your nearest participating store on Friday!

Note: Promo is only applicable for especially marked packs and runs only until supplies last.

CONCERT | Pussycat Dolls Live in Manila (SM Mall of Asia Arena) this May 2020

Image Courtesy: Wilbros

Watch Pussycat Dolls live in Manila this May 2020!

WHEN: May 9, 2020 (Saturday)
WEERE: Mall of Asia Arena

Don’t cha wish your girlfriend was hot like me! Don’t cha wish your girlfriend was a freak like me! Don't cha aha ha, don't cha!


The mega hit all-female group The Pussycat Dolls reunite for the first time in 10 years  here in Manila!

Tickets will be on sale starting Feb 29 at 10 AM. Visit SMTickets.com for more information. Tickets will be available at all SM Ticket outlets nationwide. You may call 8470-2222.

FOOD | Ramen Nagi Pay Day Feast Promo This February 2020

Image Courtesy: Ramen Nagi

Ramen Nagi Pay Day Feast Promo for February 2020

Promo Period: February 27 to March 1, 2020
Participating Stores: Ramen Nagi Stores Nationwide

Your hard work deserves a treat! It's going to be one great payday feast! Hurray! Enjoy three (3) of your favorite ramen with iced teas and Ramen Nagi will make it extra special with Gyoza and Karaage FOR FREE!!!

Offer is valid from February 27 to March 1, 2020 in all Ramen Nagi stores nationwide.

*2 Gyoza orders for Camp John Hay, Trinoma and Ayala 30th

Terms and conditions:

1. Gyoza and Chicken Karaage ON US, when you order 3 Ramen and 3 Iced Tea. Avail as low as P1,440 and save P510!

2. For Ramen Nagi Camp John Hay, Trinoma and Ayala Mall 30th, order any Ramen and 3 Iced Tea and you will get FREE 2 servings of Gyoza. Save 470!

3. Valid for Original King (P395), Red King (P450), Green King (P450), or Black King (P450).

4. Not valid for Limited Kings.

5. Available for dine-in customers only.

6. Valid for single receipt transaction only.

7. Prices are subject to additional 10% service charge.

8. Promo is not valid in conjunction with any other promos and discounts.

9. In the purchase of goods and services which are on promotional discount, the senior citizen can 
avail of the promotional discount or the discount provided under the Expanded Senior Citizens Act 2010, whichever is higher.

10. Available at the following shops:

SM Aura Ɩ Greenbelt Ɩ SM Mall of Asia Ɩ SM North EDSA Ɩ UP Town Center Ɩ Robinsons Magnolia Ɩ Robinsons Ermita Ɩ Robinsons Galleria Ɩ Eastwood Ɩ Ayala Feliz East Ɩ Signa Makati Ɩ One Bonifacio BGC Ɩ NAIA Terminal 3 Ɩ Alabang Town Center Ɩ Greenhills Ɩ Ayala Malls Manila Bay Ɩ SM Baguio Ɩ SM Pampanga Ɩ Nuvali Laguna Trinoma Ɩ Camp John Hay Ɩ Ayala Malls 30th.

#RamenNagi #PaydayFeast #FavoriteRamen

Tuesday, February 25, 2020

TRAVEL | Cebu Pacific Seat Sale this February 2020! Book your flights now!



Cebu Pacific Seat Sale is ongoing for the month of February 2020!

Booking Period: February 24 to 26, 2020
Travel Period: April 1 to June 30, 2020

It's official. Time to grab this opportunity to enjoy a perfect summer getaway! 




Make moments happen.  Book flights this seat sale for as low as Php 99 for select Philippine destinations and for as low as Php 399 for select international destinations. Avail of Cebu Pacific’s new fare bundles to save up to 12%! Choose from Go Basic, Go Easy or Go Flexi. Available during initial booking only.

Monday, February 24, 2020

MED | PLE Pharmacology Review - Antiarrhythmic Heart Drugs Mnemonics

Now, let's talk about the anti-arrhythmic heart drugs which might appear as one of the choices in the Physician Licensure Exam (PLE). I will be making this post as short as I can so as to supplement what you have learned in your review with what I can recall during my review.

Take note that this post does not serve to act as your sole source of review information. I might be wrong with some of what I'm saying here, so if you think I have committed mistake, please let me know via the comments section below. There's just so much to learn with so little time.

Antiarrhythmic drugs can be divided into four (4) classes depending on the channel that is being affected:

Singh-Vaughan Williams Classification

Class 1: Sodium (Na) channel blockers
Class 2: Beta blockers
Class 3: Potassium channel blockers
Class 4: Calcium channel blockers

For some mnemonics about the Singh-Vaughan Williams Classification:



I hope it wasn't too much of a headache to try to memorize the mnemonic NaBePoCa.


Remember that arrhythmia could either be due to abnormal automaticity where areas other than the natural pacemaker (SA node) take over in dictate the heart rate or due to abnormal conduction through erratic impulses.

Here are the mnemonics for the different classes of anti-arrhythmic drugs.

Class 1 Antiarrhythmics drugs


Since they're all anti-arrhythmic drugs, we should be reminded that the amount and administration of these if left unchecked can also cause arrhythmias. Notable differentiating side effects of Class 1 anti-arrhythmic drugs are as follows:

Side effects of Class 1A antiarrhythmic drugs:
  • Quinidine- - cinchonism (tinnitus, headache, vertigo)
  • Procainamide - lupus-like syndrome
  • Disopyramide - antimuscarinic effects (decreased salivation and gastric secretions)

Side effects of Class 1B antiarrhythmic drugs: agranulocytosis (Tocainide), CNS stimulation, CVS depression
  • MUST-KNOW: Lidocaine is used in digitalis-induced arrhythmias

Side effects of Class 1C antiarrhythmic drugs: increased arrhythmias, CNS stimulation
  • MUST-KNOW: Flecainide is contraindicated in post-MI settings

Class 2 Antiarrhythmics drugs



Notable side effects of Class 2 anti-arrhythmic drugs are as follows: cardiac depresssion, bronchospasm, AV block

  • MUST-KNOW: Esmolol can be used for SVT and acute perioperative and thyrotoxic arrhythmias

Class 3 Antiarrhythmics drugs


Notable side effects of Class 3 anti-arrhythmic drugs are as follows: 
  • Sotalol and Dofetilide - Torsade de pointes 
  • Amiodarone - as mentioned above (note: of all anti-arrhythmic drugs, Amiodarone is the most efficacious0

Class 4 Antiarrhythmics drugs


Side effects of Class 4 antiarrhythmic drugs include: pretibial edema, flushing, constipation, gingival hyperplasia, cardiac depression

Non-DHPs like Diltiazem and Verapamil are useful in SVT migraines too.

Note: Dihydropyridine CCBs like Nifedipine and Amlodipime are not used as antiarrhythmic drugs because these facilitate, not terminate, compensatory sympathetic discharges.


I hope I was able to help you with this topic, kahit kaunti. I apologize if this isn't too deep a dive for your review. Good luck on your PLE!

Saturday, February 22, 2020

TRAVEL | Philippine Airlines (PAL) Fly & Shop Local Seat Sale



Truly shopping is more fun in the Philippines! Based on the Department of Tourism's Visitor Sample Survey in 2018, shopping is the most common tourist activity in the country at 38 percent.

Hence, the 2020 Philippine Shopping Festival was created! To join you in celebrating festival, Philippine Airlines brings you PAL's Fly & Shop Local Seat Sale. 

Fly with Philippine Airlines and enjoy low fares to domestic destinations!

Sale Period: February 21 to February 29, 2020.
Travel Period: February 24 to December 10, 2020.

To know more about the local seat sale promo, visit this page.

FOOD | Bonchon Kids Eat for FREE Promo until March 31



Spend some quality time with your kids and loved ones at Bonchon! 

Six days ago, Bonchon has come up with an exciting deal, the Bonchon's Kids Eat for FREE Promo!  Ongoing since February 17 and is set to end on March 31, 2020, the promo allows your kid to get a 1-piece Bonchon K-Style chicken for FREE for a minimum purchase of just Php 399.


Promo Mechanics:


1. Promo is applicable to kids 3-12 years old with a minimum purchase of Php 399. 
Note: Php 399 minimum purchase is NOT applicable to Team Bonchon group meals 

2. Child should be present at the time of purchase. 

3. One (1) FREE Kiddie Meal per transaction – 1-piece Kstyle Chicken with rice ala carte 

4. Valid for DINE-IN transactions ONLY. 

5. Promo is not valid in conjunction with any other ongoing promos and discounts.

FOOD | Little Caesars Pizza Anniversary Promo



As we celebrate Little Caesars Pizza's anniversary, the home of one of the yummiest pizzas in town is inviting everyone to check out this great promo! 

Order any large 12" pizza + 16 oz beverage and get a FREE large 12" cheese pizza! This promo will run until March 1, 2020 only.

Promo Mechanics:
  • Buy ONE (1) of any 12" large pizza + a 16 oz drink, get ONE (1) FREE 12" large cheese pizza.
  • Promo is valid until March 1, 2020 during operating hours only.
  • Valid for Dine In, Take Out, Pick Up and Delivery transactions only. Delivery via hotline at (02)7971-3069, GrabFood or FoodPanda only.
  • Maximum of THREE (3) orders of pizza per transaction.
  • Valid only at Little Caesars UN Avenue cor. Alhambra Street, Ermita, Manila.
  • In the purchase of goods and services which are on promotional discount, the senior citizen can avail of the promotional discount or the discount provided under Expanded Senior Citizen Act of 2010, whichever is higher.”
  • Not valid with other promotions, offers, vouchers or discounts.

EVENTS | Aurora 2020: Food and Music Festival, Hot Air Balloon Display, and Night Glow



Hey guys! 

Another hot air balloon festival is set to bring happiness to those who'll attend it.

Aurora 2020: Food and Music Festival, Hot Air Balloon Display, and Night Glow will take place on March 13 to 14 in Clark Global City, Clark Freeport Zone, Pampanga. There will be food fests, car shows, nights of music, and a hot air ballon display!

Tickets are priced at Php 350 (Gen Ad) | 750 (VIP). Kids 4 feet below enter for free. Visit https://smtickets.com/events/view/8890 for more details.

Here is a rundown of the Aurora 2020 gigs and events you should look forward to!

MARCH 13 (Friday)

Events

2:00pm – GATES OPEN
2:00pm – 12:00mn – Food Festival and Bazaar
2:00pm – 7:00pm – CAR SHOW, 4×4 PRODUCTION RACE AND OTHER ACTIVITIES
2:00pm – 7:00pm – HOT AIR BALLOON DISPLAY
Gigs and Artists

5:00pm – Happy Three Friends
6:00pm – Malebox
6:45pm – Pot Sembrano
7:30pm – IV Of Spades
8:30pm – Balloon Night Glow
9:30pm – Ben & Ben
10:30pm – December Avenue
11:30pm- Chocolate Factory
1:30am – DJ Melvin Lapera / MC Killah



MARCH 14 (Saturday)

Events 

2:00pm – GATES OPEN
2:00pm – 12:00mn – Food Festival and Bazaar
2:00pm – 7:00pm – CAR SHOW, 4×4 PRODUCTION RACE AND OTHER ACTIVITIES
2:00pm – 7:00pm – HOT AIR BALLOON DISPLAY

Gigs and Artists

5:00pm – Pot Sembrano
6:00pm – Kiyo
6:45pm – Al James
7:30pm – Allmost
8:30pm – Balloon Night Glow
9:30PM – Ronnie Alonte
10:30pm – Michael Pangilinan
11:30pm – Unique Salonga
12:30am – DJ Jhelou/ MC Dio
1:30am – DJ Sherwyn Diwa/ MC Dio

FOOD | Unli Pizza , Unli Wings at Yellow Cab Unli Madness Promo on February 28!




Unli Pizza at Yellow Cab this February 2020

WHEN: February 28 2020
WHERE: Yellow Cab Stores
PRICE: Php 399

Attention pizza lovers!

February has gone by so quickly and Yellow Cab is ready to cap it off on a high! On February 28, get ready to have your bellies filled and your hands full as your favorite New York-style pizza joint is offering an unbeatable promo that is definitely #SoWorthIt.

Turn up your appetite as you take delight in unlimited servings of pizzas and wings with the Unli Madness promo! For one day only, you do you and have your fill of unlimited pizzas paired with unlimited servings of juicy and savory wings, making it the perfect feast for hungry diners. Yum talaga! And that's for Php 399 only!

Have your pick of three mouthwatering, edge-to-edge pizza toppings: iconic New York Classic, local favorite Hawaiian, or flavorful #4 Cheese; and your choice of the original Hot Chix or lip-smacking Sweet Soy wing flavors, as you enjoy a crazy good dining experience unlike any other.

This exciting promo is valid only for dine-in transactions at participating stores, during store business hours. You’ll be given only two hours to eat so you better come hungry!

Let your appetite fly and go cray over pizza and wings! Don’t miss this one-day offer and head to your nearest Yellow Cab store. To check out the participating stores, visit https://www.facebook.com/YellowCabPizzaOfficial/.

SALE | Books for Less Clearance Sale this February to March 2020



Books for Less Clearance Sale February 2020

Promo Period: February 20- March 15, 2020

Hey, bookworms! More books are on SALE at this years ongoing Books for Less Clearance Sale! Avail 50% OFF on selected books! Grab great books for as low as Php 25!!! 

Check out the participating Books for Less Clearance Sale branches below.
  • Ayala Solenad
  • Biblio.ph
  • Rob Antipolo
  • SM North The Block
    SM Taytay
    SM East Ortigas

SHOPPING | H&M Sale from February to March 2020



Heads up, H&M shoppers! Your favorite clothing store is now on sale. This started last February 20. 

Promo Period: February 20- March 15, 2020
Applicable to all H&M stores nationwide

Are you ready to go shopping? Ready, SALE, Go! #HMSale

SALE | Saucony Shoe Sale this February 22-29, 2020!







Saucony Shoe Sale
Promo Period: February 22-29, 2020

Check out Saucony’s top shoe models in 2020 Pantone (Color of the Year). Shop for up to 50% off until Feb. 29!

Chooose from a variety of Saucony shoes now on sale: from the cult runnning fave Kinvara to the top stability choice Guide to the plush and cushioned Triumph. 

Get awesome deals on these Saucony shoes and more through its Saucony stores in Ayala lls Manila Bay, Glorietta 3, and Trinoma. Visit Saucony online at www.saucony.com.ph.

FOOD | Jollibee's Buko Pie is Back!





Guess what? Your all-time favorite Jollibee Buko Pie is back! Yes, you are hearing that right!

Jollibee’s Buko Pie with sweet-creamy filling and real buko chunks is back for a limited time! Get yours at the nearest Jollibee restaurant and be delighted with every bite! Only P30 per piece. #JollibeeBukoPie #RealBukoDelight

Thursday, February 20, 2020

HEALTH | Ano ang 2019 Novel Coronavirus at COVID-19?

Madalas itong lumalabas sa news nitong mga nakaraang linggo. Laman ng mga bakita na may novel o bagong coronavirus na nagsimulang kumalat sa Wuhan (sentro ng outbreak o sakuna) at iba pang probinsya ng China ngayon na nakikita na din sa iba't ibang parte ng mundo. 

Minsan na din itong naging source ng panic dito sa Pilipinas dahil sa kakulangan natin ng kaalaman tungkol dito. Sabi nga nila, we fear the unknown. Marami tayong katanungan na hindi pa masagot-sagot dahil mas binibigyang-importansya ngayon ng gobyerno ng China na mahanap yung mga may sakit nang sa ganoon ay maalagaan at mabantayan sila  asagad. Ang suliraning ito ay mas mahirap sagutin kumpara sa tanong na "bakit niya ako iniwan?"

Pero ano nga ba ito at ano ang naidudulot nito? Ang 2019 novel coronavirus o 2019-nCoV ay isang bagong uri ng coronavirus. Ang coronavirus ay isa sa mga mikrobyong dahilan kung bakit tayo nagkaka-sipon. ng

Ang pinagkaiba lang ng 2019 nCoV sa mga coronavirus na karaniwang nagdudulot ng sakit sa atin ay hindi pa natin masyadong natutukoy o nalalaman kung papaano ito gumagalaw o umatake sa katawan dahil nga bago ito.

Image Courtesy: Wikipedia

Ang alam lang natin ay nakakapagdulot ito ng iba't ibang sintomas na may kinalaman sa baga o lungs natin gaya ng ubo, hirap sa paghinga, tsaka lagnat. Dahil sa mga sintomas na ito, ang nakikitang epekto nito'y para kang may pulmonya o pneumonia. Ang opisyal na tawag sa sakit na ito ay COVID-19 o coronary virus disease. 19 kasi nitong December 2019 nadiskubre ang sakit na ito.

So, 2019-nCoV ang nagdudulot ng sakit na COVID-19. Okay? Malinaw na?

Karamihan sa natatamaan ng sakit na COVID-19, batay sa current data na mayroon ang China at ang World Health Organization, ay nakakaranas ng mild symptoms (ubo, lagnat na kusang nawawala) lang kung kaya't napapauwi sila matapos maadmit sa hospital ng maraming araw. 

Sa ngayon, nasa 2% ng mga nagkaka-COVID-19 (o dalawa kada 100 taong may COVID-19) ang namamatay sa Wuhan, kung kaya't yung mga taong may sintomas na binanggit sa itaas na nanggaling ng China (hindi lang sa Wuhan ha, pati na rin sa Macau, Taiwan, Hong Kong) ay kailangang matingnan ng doktor. Mas magandang maaga silang magpakonsulta para maagang malaman kung positibo ba sila sa 2019-nCoV o COVID-19 virus at mas tumaas yung chance na maagapan yung paglala ng pulmonya ng mga ito. Early detection is key. Karamihan sa mga namamatay ay mga matatanda (elderly) o di kaya'y may kasamang iba pang pangmatagalang sakit (sakit sa puso, immunocompromised).

Pero papaano nga ba natin maiiwasan ang pag-laganap ng virus na ito? Paano ba maiiwasan ang hawaan? Basahin ang mga payo sa ibaba. 

Image Courtesy: DOH
Please, wag na wag niyong kalilimutang maghugas lagi ng kamay. Ito ang pinaka-importanteng advice na dapat sundin. Sa paggamit ng sabon at tubig sa paghahand wash, mas mapapanatiling malinis ang ating mga kamay na siyang pangunahing parte ng katawan na ginagamit natin sa araw-araw na gawain.

Image Courtesy: DOH

Maraming nagtatanong kung kailangan nga ba nating magsuot ng face mask. Ang mga sumusunod lamang ang higit na nangangailangan ng face mask. Pakitingnan po ang susunod na infographics.

Ginagamit ito ng mga pasyenteng positibo sa nCoV para hindi sila makahawa sa mga kamag-anak nila o sa mga mag-aalagang nurse, doctor, at staff. Proteksyon din ito ng mgo doktor at mga kamag-anak ng mga pasyenteng may COVID-19 para di sila mahawa, Tandaan na maaring makahawa ang pasyenteng may COVID-19 sa  pamamagitan ng pag-ubo within 6 feet. Kung malayo ka naman sa kanya all the time at hindi ka laging exposed ay ibigay na lamang ang face masks sa mga kamag-anak niyang nagbabantay.

Iwasan nating maghoard ng face masks dahil kawawa iyong mga pasyente, kamag-anak nila, at mga doktor, nurse at iba pang nagtratrabaho sa loob ng ospital. Sa kasalukuyan, wala pang naitalang bagong kaso ng COVID-19 sa bansa. Sa tatlong nagpositibo nitong nakaraang buwan, isa ang namatay at dalawa ay na-discharge na.


Image Courtesy: DOH

Ngayon, kung isa ka sa mga dapat magsuot ng face mask, heto ang mga tips kung papaano ang tamang pagsuot ng surgical face mask.

Image Courtesy: DOH


Makakatulong din na ugaliin ang proper cough etiquette nang sa gayon ay makaiwas din tayo sa paghawa ng ubo o sipon sa mga kasama natin sa bahay o sa trabaho.


Image Courtesy: DOH
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MED | PLE Pharmacology Review - Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) Drugs Mnemonics



So as I was studying for the 2019 Physician Licensure Examination or PLE, I made it a point to make drafts of some of the things I learned that I can immediately recall from the notes and tables I got during my review period.

Writing this here somehow enabled me to at least aggregate what I know and identify the weak areas that I still need to be familiar with to better prepare myself for the Pharmacology part of the PLE. Please take note that I was just an average performing student in school, but at this moment, I tried to catch up on the lessons and at the same time, aimed to be helpful to others given the limited knowledge and resources that I have.

Today's topic is about drugs used in congestive heart failure (CHF).

Side note:
  • Left-sided heart failure will usually present with orthopnea, pulmonary congestion and paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea
  • Right-sided heart failure will come with symptoms of bipedal edema, neck vein engorgement, and hepatomegaly.
Some points to remember:
  • Because the heart is failing, cardiac output is decreased relative to the requirement of the body.
  • So the goals is to either
    • Push the heart to contract stronger (positive inotropes)
    • To lower the resistance the heart must pump against (also called afterload) for less stress (vasodilators)
    • Use other drugs to help alleviate accompanying heart failure symptoms
Enlisted below are the drugs used in congestive heart failure (CHF). Please do note that I only included what I feel are important or must-knows, given that I only have a limited amount of time. Take these with a grain of salt.

POSITIVE INOTROPES 

1. Cardiac Glycoside (DIGOXIN)

MOA: inhibits Na-K ATPase, increases contractility
Side effects: narrow therapeutic index, arrhythmia, yellow halos
Note: arrhythmogenesis risk increases with HYPOKALEMIA (from use of loop diuretics or thiazides), HYPOMAGNESEMIA, HYPERCALCEMIA

Mnemonics: Narrow Therapeutic Index Drugs


2. Beta-agonist (DOPAMINE, DOBUTAMINE)

Note: useful in ACUTE heart failure, not recommended in CHRONIC heart failure due to arrhythmogenic effects


3, PDE inhibitors (MILRINONE)

MOA: inhibits phosphodiesterase breakdown, increases cAMP, vasodilation
Side effects: bronchospasm, HYPOKALEMIA
Note: acts as an "ino-lator" (inotropes + vasodilator), increases morbidity and mortality in CHRONIC heart failure patients


VASODILATORS

1, NITROGLYCERIN, NITROPRUSSIDE - for ACUTE severe heart failure WiTH CONGESTION

2. HYDRALAZINE, ISOSORBIDE DINITRATE - reduces mortality in African Americans
Note: ISDN should not be taken with PDE inhibitor Sildenafil to prevent severe hypotension


OTHER IMPORTANT DRUGS

1. Ace inhibitors (-PRILS) and ARBs (-SARTANS) - FIRST LINE for CHRONIC heart failure
Note: Valsartan usually combined with SACUBITRIL (when activated, inhibits neprilysin, an enzyme that degrades BP-lowering peptides, in effect, lowering the BP)

2. Diuretics - first line for ACUTE and CHRONIC heart failure (systolic and diastolic)
  • FUROSEMIDE - loop diuretic, used to immediately address pulmonary congestion and severe bipedal edema, WOF hypokalemia
  • SPINOROLACTONE - K-sparing diuretic, acts as an non-selective aldosterone antagonist via competitive inhibition at the DCT, reduced mortality in CHRONIC CHF when added to loop diuretics

3. Beta blockers (-OLOLs) - slows progression of CHRONIC CHF, NOT useful in ACUTE CHF

4. Brain Natriuretic Peptide (BNP) analog (NESIRITIDE) - for ACUTE DECOMPENSATED heart failure
Note: BNP is secreted by the cardiomyocytes in response to ventricule stretch from increased ventricular blood volume

Mnemonics: Drugs that Improve Survival in chronic Heart Failure


I guess that's it. If I ever committed any mistake here, please let me know. I am no expert on these matters. Just like you, I've gone through the strenuous, anxiety-inducing days of the review. I just jotted down what I learned from my Topnotch lecturers and reviewer notes. Hope this  shor review  on CHF drugs has helped you in some way.

Don't be scared. Carry on. :)